Global Energy Perspective to 2050

Understanding energy demand dynamics is essential for strategic decision making. Energy Insights analyzes the drivers of energy demand growth sector by sector, maintaining a highly granular view across fuels and regions, and leveraging McKinsey’s industry expertise. Our perspective on the global energy landscape models the main uncertainties to provide you with detailed outlooks for demand in 139 countries, 22 sectors, and 55 fuel types, related CO2 emissions, and required investments until 2050 for any given scenario.

"Fossil fuels will dominate the energy mix through 2050, but their share of total energy will decline to 74% from 82%."


Energy demand forecast

Detailed forecast of energy demand from emerging markets over time.

Regional power supply

Power supply mix evolution per region taking both new and old technologies into account and the availability of fuels.

Infrastructure investments

Projected investments needed into energy infrastructure in the short, mid and long term.

Growth in global energy demand will decelerate to 0.7% per year through 2050

Oil demand growth will flatten to 0.4%

Gas will grow at almost double the rate of total energy demand

Coal will peak by 2023

Solar and wind will represent almost 80% of net added capacity and 34% of generation by 2050

Demand for light vehicles will peak around 2023
Petrochemical feedstock will drive 70% of the growth in liquid hydrocarbon demand through 2035

Chemicals will grow at more than double the rate of total energy demand

By 2030, electric vehicles could represent 50% of new cars sold in China, the EU, and the US, and 30% globally

Demand for electricity will outpace demand for other sources by more than 2:1

The Global Energy Perspective to 2050 provides a highly granular and flexible outlook on the global energy landscape until 2050 by giving insights on upcoming trends, underlying drivers, and possible discontinuities from the short to the long term.