Gain is the refining phenomenon in which the volume of refined product coming out of a refinery or conversion unit is greater than the volume of product going in. This has two potential causes:

  • Change in density between inputs and outputs - If outputs have a lower density, even with the same mass of product as feedstock, volume will be higher
  • Input of non liquid feeds - Often hydrogen gas is provided as a feedstock, which provides extra material and results in a volume gain relative to the liquid feedstock

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